I’ve looked through the support cases on this and have only found that SyncThing cannot use an external/portable SD card as a target.
On Android 10 (LG Journey phone), the “/storage/emulated/0/whatever” is indeed the internal(non SD storage). “/storage/emulated/1/whatever” doesn’t work as a way to address the SD card. When a directory is shared by another device, Android 10 is unable to create anything.
However, if a directory is created by SyncThing, an external app (the native file manager?) is called and you are told that SyncThing will get access to the directory you are creating. While the directory gets created, SyncThing can only read the contents. Good for pushing out photos, but if you want your phone to have a backup of other devices, it doesn’t work. For this I would like a further workaround.
In Android 11 (Samsung A11), I was able to create directories that read and write. They had to be created on the phone and shared to the other devices. I couldn’t get directories created on those devices to work on the phone. However, if you have only 1 Android device and many non-Android devices, this is fine.
Perhaps this will help others as it’s a report on somewhat recent versions of Android.